American Journal of Scientific Research

Issue 106
October, 2015

The Changes is Mentioned by Red Highlight
4-13
Mohammadhossein Setayesh, Javad Hayati, Somayyeh Hosseini Nia and Golamreza Rezaei

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to examine relationship between the financial restatements and the auditor change in listed firms of Tehran Stock Exchange. So this study tries to answer this question that: has financial restatement any impact on auditor change. We include 66 firms listed in Tehran Stock Exchange during the period 2006 to 2012 as our study sample. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to test research hypothesis. Statistical hypothesis test results indicate that there is not any significant relationship between financial restatements and its intensity and audit change. This result points to difference in structure of audit firm's choice of customer by Iranian audit firms.
Keyword: financial restatements, financial restatements intensity, auditor change, the Tehran Stock Exchange.



Wording and Technical Terms' Translation
14-20
Gaida Al Rawashdeh

Abstract:
The goal of this study is to investigate the use of wording and technical terms translation from Arabic into English in postgraduate abstracts produced by students doing their Masters in Biology at Mu'tah University in Jordan for the academic year 2014/2015. This qualitative and quantitative research included 15 postgraduate abstracts as the sample of the study. The sample of this research was selected randomly. The researcher used two research instruments to elicit data from the participants. This involved textual analysis and semi-structured interview. The findings of this research showed that translator's background knowledge and lack of vocabularies have significant effect on the quality of text translation, particularly when translating technical terms in scientific texts such as biology abstracts. This study recommends that further future research be conducted to confirm and support the findings the current research and enrich body knowledge in the area of teaching translation in an EFL context in Jordan.
Keywords: Biology, Vocabulary, Translation, Scientific Text, Abstracts and Background Knowledge.


The Analysis of Effective Factors on Internet
21-31
Zeinab Bahmani

Abstract:
The main objective of this research is to analyze effective factors in internet shopping from the viewpoint of academic products shoppers in Tehran Metropolitan city. This research because of its application objective and the method of research, is descriptive and causative because in addition of describing the current situation, it has also made an attempt to discover the connection between the variables of the research since the expecting results can improve the operation of internet – based stores, this research is of academic products at Tehran metropolitan city who have shopped via internet at least once. Since the volume of the sample of the pool is unlimited, its formula is shown below in which for the determination of the volume, 30 questionnaires in the respected pool were distributed and after the calculation of the mean and standard deviation and placing them in the perspective formula the volume of the sample was calculated. The method used in this research was of clustering sampling method and improbable sampling is at hand. Thus, the city f Tehran was divided into four sections of north, south, east and west. Then, to be sure about the rate of return, the questionnaires, for each section 5 extra questionnaires were distributed in which the views of academic products purchasers about the variables of the research were measured. In this research, the questionnaires were used for the collection of the data. The data were analyzed after collecting the data using SPSS and LISREL software. The results indicate the usefulness and the easiness of using the internet.
Keywords: Cognitive usefulness, Easy use of the Internet, The Nature of the process of doing the Job.


Factors Affecting the Acquisition of CD34+ Cells from Umbilical Cord Blood
32-40
Tono Djuwantono, Ike Kristina, Ahmad Faried, Cynthia Retna Sartika, Bayu Winata Putera, Yanni Dirgantara and Firman F. Wirakusumah

Abstract:
Sufficient quantity of umbilical cord blood (UCB) affects the success of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This study was aimed to determine factors, which may influence the quantity of UCB. Those factors, in turn, might be controlled to optimize the acquisition of UCB. UCB samples were taken from 34 subjects, who delivered in Mother and Child Hospital Limijati, Bandung. Subjects were at term pregnancy and delivered either spontaneously or via caesarean section (C-section). Samples were phenotypically evaluated for stem cell potential with flow cytometric analysis for cell surface protein CD34+ marker. Functional characteristic of UCB hematopoietic stem cells were tested in vitro using colony forming unit (CFU) assay. Data gathered were analyzed statistically. Significant positive correlations were found between several parameters. Those correlations were between the volume of UCB and the number of total nucleated cells (TNC) (r= 0.548, p < 0.001), the concentration of CD34+ cells and the number of TNC (r =0.706, p <0.001), the hemoglobin level of the subject before delivery and the number of TNC (r= 0.387, p <0.05), and the hemoglobin level of the subject before delivery and the concentration of CD34+ cells. The number of formed CFU was positively correlated with the number of TNC (r= 0.425, p<0.05). However, it was not positively correlated with the concentration CD34+ cells. UCB with higher concentration of CD34+ cells can be acquired with larger volume of UCB and higher number of TNC. The amount of formed CFU was influenced by total number of TNC but it is not affected by concentration of CD34+ cells. Further investigations are needed to determine factors, which influence the volume of UCB and the number of TNC.
Keywords: CD34+, colony forming unit (CFU), umbilical cord blood (CB).


Contribution to the Theoretical and Numerical Simulation of Welding Tig Aluminum in 2024
41-50
Othmani B., Allali A., Azzazen M., Medkour M. and Abada M.

Abstract:
The 2024 aluminum alloy. The form of plates with dimensions (200 x 150 mm) and thickness (mm 2 and 1 respectively). One can note the almost inevitable presence of impurities. It is part of the 2000 series alloys with high copper content, of the order of 4% by mass. The TIG welding process comprises heating the work piece by the heat of an electric arc which is struck between the non-consumable tungsten electrode and the material concerned. The study of heat transfer in a welding operation is to ensure a quality seal. A local modification of the microstructure and metallurgical state of the area affected by the metal heating (HAZ:). Indeed, the cycle inherent in welding temperature disturbs the equilibrium conditions and properties as they exist in the delivery of material. A real contribution to obtain accurate results is closer to reality. Which is proved by the heat source ellipsoidal (Gaussian heat source) determined in the graphs. The numerical results of the weld are mainly the temperature distribution between the two rectangular plates.
Keywords: Theoretical, Gaussian heat source, modeling, welding Tig, Aluminum, numerical, simulation, temperature, affected metal heating.


Proposing an Integrated Spatial Planning & Disaster Management Model in Iran
51-67
Mohammad Hadi Mahdinia, Christa Reicher and Stefan Greiving

Abstract:
The linkage between spatial planning and disaster management has been ignored in the urban area of Iran longtime. By extending of urbanization and industrialization in Iran, cities are faced problems such as expansion on hazard prone areas. The main goal of the study is to examine and develop a spatial planning methodology that is led to promoting the urban resilience. This paper analyzed the spatial planning and disaster management in Iran. In order to at first was analyzed spatial planning and disaster management in Iran that was used Delphi and SWOT technique. At finally was proposed the conceptual model for integrated spatial planning with incorporating the disaster management.
Keywords: Disaster management, spatial planning, integrated approach.


Fresh Olive Fruit Extract uses for Anti-Cancer by the Inhibition of Cell Proliferation: Its Biochemical, Genomic DNA and Antioxidant Properties
68-76
A.B.M Sharif Hossain, Nasir Adam Ibrahim and Mohammed Aleissa

Abstract:
Olive (Oleaeuropaea) leaves, fruit and oil based biomedicine can be used for health benefits as well as anti-disease treatment and nowadays it is very attractive issue related a to the cancer treatment in the field of pharmaceutical, medical and biomedical studies. Olive leaf and fruit extracts are an important anticancer treatment showing different cells proliferation in the cell culture technology. Olive leaves and fruits have been traditionally used in the treatment of infection, inflammation, cardiovascular disorders and cancer. The anticancer potential of dry olive leaf extract represents the net effect of multilevel interactions between different biologically active compounds from the extract, cancer cells and conventional therapy. Oil has been shown to induce significant levels of apoptosis in various cancer cells due to the antioxidants (phenolic compounds) present in olive. In present study fresh olive extractionwas used directly to investigate the antioxidants (polyphenols, oleuropein) and biochemical (pH, glucose, sugar content), genomic (DNA) and nutritional properties like N as NO3, K+, Ca++, Na+ which might be related to the cell proliferation. antioxidants (polyphenols, oleuropein) and biochemical (glucose, sugar content) and nutritional properties like N as NO3, K+, Ca++, Na+,werefound higher value in the olive fruit having much more watering than others. However, the highest acidic (lower pH) condition (sour) was found in no watered treated fruit. DNA band was wider at different water level condition in olive fruit. Therefore, our results suggest that olive fruit can be used for cancer cell proliferation having more anti oxidants.
Keywords: fresh olive juice, antioxidant, sugars, nutrient, DNA and anticancer


Socio-Economic Determinants of Loan Acquisition among Cassava Farmers in South-South Nigeria
77-87
Awoke, Michael Ugota and Kuye, Olufemi Oludayo

Abstract:
This study analysed the socio-economic determinants of loan acquisition among cassava farmers in South-south Nigeria. Multistage and random sampling techniques were used to select a total of two hundred and fifty (250) cassava farmer loan beneficiaries (CFLB) across the South-south States of Cross River, Akwa Ibom and Rivers, the study area. Primary data were collected through field survey with the aid of a well structured questionnaire and interview schedule. The data collected were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics such as table, frequency distribution, means and percentages were used to analyse objectives (i) and (iii) while objective (ii) was analysed using four functional forms of multiple regression analysis. Results showed that majority 35.68% of CFLB fell within age bracket of between 46-55 years with mean age of 43 years. About 59.75% of the respondents were males while 64.32% were married. The household size of the majority 34.85% was more than 4 persons. Secondary education was attained by majority 41.08%. The farm size of the CFLB ranged between 7-9 hectares with 20.33% of the respondents while the annual farm income of majority 24.48% of CFLB was above N300,000.00 with mean annual farm income of N188,602.00. Double log function was chosen as the lead equation and it showed a high R2 of 0.89 (89%). This result implied that about 89% of the variability in the volume of loan obtained by CFLB was explained or determined by the independent variables. Late granting of loan (70.12%), number of guarantors (69.29%), high interest rate (66.80%) and poor supervision (67.22%) were among the constraints to loan acquisition by cassava farmer loan beneficiaries in the study area. The study further showed that the socio-economic characteristics of the CFLB significantly influenced the amount of loan they acquired in the study area. Recommendations such as improving the educational levels of the farmers, strengthening bank supervisory roles, training loan applicants as well as decreasing the commercial banks lending /ceiling rate were made among others.
Keywords: Socio-economic characteristics, Loan supervision, Cassava farmer loan beneficiaries, South-south, Nigeria, Regression analysis.


Effect of Diethylamine on Physicochemical Properties of Reformat Gasoline
88-96
Moh .Ezeldin, Ali. M. Masaad, Nawal M. Suleman and Abualreish.M. J. A.

Abstract:
The main objective of this project was blending of diethylamine (DEA) with local reformat gasoline, to enhance the physicochemical properties of and octane number of reformat gasoline produced from Khartoum refinery(Sudan). The used samples were tested according to American society for testing and materials(ASTM), physicochemical properties included: distillation , sulfur content, density, vapor pressure, oxidation stability , copper strip corrosion, gum existence, lead content, and octane number determination by Cooperative Fuels Research )CFR engine(. Previously tetra ethyl lead (TEL) and tetra methyl lead (TML) have been used to improve the fuels octane number, but they have negative effects on the environment, and have been banned internationally. The motor octane number (MON) of reformat gasoline used in this project was recorded (88.5) before additives. In order to enhance the ON of reformat gasoline, DEA was added to the reformat gasoline with different concentration (5, 10% v/v). Octane number of blends was measured by CFR engine. The properties of reformat gasoline after additions were improved to the limits assigned by ASTM and Khartoum refinery. Motor octane number(MON) was increased into the 92.5 & 94.9 after additions 5&10 v/v of DEA, respectively.
Keywords: Quality of reformat gasoline, Physicochemical properties of gasoline, Octane Number, Diethylamine.

Assess the Physical Development of the City of Qom in Order to Avoid the Phenomenon of Urban Creep and Achieve Smart Growth Pattern
97-108
Nasim Hasanimianroudi

Abstract:
During recent decades, increasing population and urbanizationis the underlying changing in physical structure of cities. This restructuring of the provincial centers by increasing the concentration of capital and resources, migration of rural - urban migration from deprived areas of towns and cities that are increasingly growing.
Qom is the one of the seven major metropolitan area in the past few years, witnessing the mass arrival of immigrants and a significant growth in population and physical - Spatial expansion. Accordingly, the present study a with an analysis and assessmentmethod describes the physical development of the city of Qom in order to avoid the phenomenon of urban creep model and achieve smart growth.
In order to assess the physical development of Qom population density index, Shannon's entropy models and satellite images were used. The results show a tendency a growing body of Qom towards dispersed development pattern and urban creep phenomena (Aspral).
The investigations on satellite imagery indicates the continuing growth of the urban body and land use changes during the years 1991to 2013
This has led to changes in the physical structure of the model from the radial or star to the concentric model, but the distressing problem is unbridled physical development and spread of the city
Keywords: physical development, urban creep, smart growth, Qom city.

The Analysis of Economic Factors – Social Associated with Men's Violence against Women in the Family
109-113
Abdolmohammad Taheri and Mohammed Shabani

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is explanation of violence against women in the family in relation to economic, social and cultural factors; in this study, derived assumptions from the social learning theory at the micro level, theory subculture of violence at the macro level and also the studies and previous research. The results indicate that variables such as age couple, the duration of the couples of marriage, number of children, the couple's commitment to the religious beliefs, the freedom of couples in choosing a spouse, educational level and employment status of women, experience of violence by the couple's parents relate with the men’s violence against women; In addition, the results suggest the physical, psychological, social and economic violence are the instances of violence against women in the family. Generally, the results of the investigation indicate the theoretical models based on social learning theory and subculture of violence have the high services predicting in the explanation of men’s violence against women in the family and explains the significant percentage of the change of the men violence against women in the family.
Keywords: Violence against women, social learning, Subculture of violence